In 2023, scientists Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work on mRNA vaccines. This award is a big honor in the field of science. They got it in Sweden.

In 2005, they wrote a very important paper. At first, not many people paid attention to it. But during the Covid-19 pandemic, it became very useful. They did their research at the University of Pennsylvania. This helped Pfizer, BioNTech, and Moderna make mRNA vaccines. These vaccines are special because they do not use the actual virus. They only use instructions for the cells. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is like a recipe for cells. It tells them how to make proteins. With mRNA vaccines, this recipe helps cells make a part that looks like the virus. This makes the body create important immune parts. This is why these vaccines are special and important in fighting diseases. They give hope for the future, not just for Covid-19, but for other illnesses like malaria, RSV, and HIV.