Shortly after the most powerful earthquake in four decades, Naples, Italy, experienced a magnitude 4.0 earthquake, causing minor structural damage but no injuries. An earlier 4.2-magnitude quake on September 27 reached as far as Rome. These tremors centered around Campi Flegrei, an area with ancient volcanoes dating back 39,000 years and marked by frequent seismic activity. Covering 200 kilometers beneath the Bay of Naples, Ischia, and Capri, this region is known for bradyseism, involving ground uplift and subsidence cycles. The last major eruption here occurred in 1538, reshaping the landscape. In 2023, the area recorded an astonishing 2,868 earthquakes, prompting Carlo Doglioni, INGV’s head, to present two scenarios to the Italian government: one where bradyseism subsides, similar to 1983–84, and a more ominous eruption like that of 1538. Authorities are closely monitoring this evolving situation.

In response to these developments, INGV has urged the Naples municipality to evacuate residents living closest to the volcanic area to assess structural vulnerabilities stemming from ground uplift. Most of the vulnerable structures have been built within the past two decades. Italy’s civil protection agency estimates that approximately 800,000 people reside in the designated “yellow zone,” while 500,000 live in the “red zone,” which is the highest-risk area near the seismic region. Given the recent seismic activity, local residents are calling for an updated evacuation plan to address the potential consequences of a volcanic eruption.