Recent research has made a surprising discovery about a small fern named Tmesipteris oblanceolata (pronounced: teh-meh-SIP-teh-ris ob-lan-see-oh-LAH-tuh), found in New Caledonia. This particular fern has the largest genome known in the living world. A genome is essentially a complete set of DNA, including all of its genes, acting as the blueprint for how an organism is built and functions. Remarkably, the genome of Tmesipteris oblanceolata is even more extensive than that of the previous record-holder, a Japanese plant named Paris japonica. If the fern’s DNA were to be stretched out, it would extend almost 350 feet, surpassing the height of the Statue of Liberty. This study, published in the scientific journal iScience, explores the effects of having a huge genome. It shows that managing such a large genome needs a lot of resources like energy and nutrients for DNA duplication and repair. This can affect the fern’s growth, reproduction, and stress responses. Also, because of the large genetic material, the plant needs bigger cells, which might slow its growth. These findings have made scientists curious about why genome sizes differ among plants and animals, leading to more research on how these differences affect life on Earth.