Researchers have discovered that about 4,200 years ago, a significant change occurred in Eurasia with the rise of a specific lineage of horses from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. This group quickly became the primary type used by humans, leading to widespread horse domestication. These horses replaced others across Eurasia due to a genetic change revealed by ancient DNA analysis. A crucial mutation in their back shape, likely making them better for riding, appeared during the Bronze Age. The Sintashta people probably domesticated these horses and spread them across the continent. This rapid change in horses was much faster than in other domesticated animals like dogs, pigs, and cattle, making it a unique event in animal domestication history.

Archaeological evidence shows that people used horses for milk and riding for thousands of years. However, around 4,200 years ago, the widespread use of domesticated horses significantly changed Eurasian societies. This research highlights the profound impact horses had on human history and their quick adaptation to human influence. These horses’ unique genetic traits transformed transportation and warfare and influenced cultural exchange and economic networks across Eurasia. This period marked the rise of equestrian cultures, shaping the development of civilizations from the steppes to the Mediterranean. The emergence of these special horses left a lasting mark on human civilization, changing how societies grew and interacted across vast regions.