A Brazilian scientist recently discovered fossils of Parvosuchus aurelioi, a small reptile resembling a crocodile that lived over 237 million years ago in southern Brazil. These fossils, including a complete skull, 11 vertebrae, the pelvis, and limb bones, were shared by paleontologist Rodrigo Muller from the Federal University of Santa Maria in Rio Grande state after publishing his research in Scientific Reports. Parvosuchus, meaning “small crocodile,” measured about one meter in length and preyed on smaller reptiles. It belonged to the rare Gracilisuchidae family, known previously from Argentina and China, existing just before dinosaurs. Parvosuchus represents an early branch of the Pseudosuchia lineage, which later evolved into modern crocodiles. Living after Earth’s worst mass extinction event 252 million years ago, various reptile groups competed for dominance before dinosaurs became predominant. The Gracilisuchidae family, to which Parvosuchus belonged, disappeared about seven million years before dinosaurs appeared. Muller emphasized that discovering Parvosuchus aurelioi enriches the understanding of ancient biodiversity and provides crucial insights into the evolution of crocodiles and dinosaurs. This finding underscores the importance of continuous paleontological research in unraveling Earth’s intricate history.